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This is a list of space probes that have left Earth orbit (or were launched with that intention but failed), organized by their planned destination. It includes planetary probes, solar probes, and probes to asteroids and comets, but excludes lunar missions, which are listed separately at List of lunar probes and List of Apollo missions. Flybys (such as gravity assists) that were incidental to the main purpose of the mission are also included. Flybys of Earth are listed separately at List of Earth flybys. Confirmed future probes are included, but missions that are still at the concept stage, or which never progressed beyond the concept stage, are not.

Key

Colour key:

Template:Color box – Mission or flyby completed successfully (or partially successfully)     Template:Color boxFailed or cancelled mission
Template:Color box – Mission en route or in progress (including mission extensions) Template:Color boxPlanned mission
  • means "tentatively identified", as classified by NASA.[1] These are Cold War-era Soviet missions, mostly failures, about which few or no details have been officially released. The information given may be speculative.
  • Date is the date of:
  • closest encounter (flybys)
  • impact (impactors)
  • orbital insertion to end of mission, whether planned or premature (orbiters)
  • landing to end of mission, whether planned or premature (landers)
  • launch (missions that never got underway due to failure at or soon after launch)
In cases which do not fit any of the above, the event to which the date refers is stated. Note that as a result of this scheme missions are not always listed in order of launch.
  • Some of the terms used under Type:
  • Flyby: The probe flies by an astronomical body, but does not orbit it
  • Orbiter: Part of a probe that orbits an astronomical body
  • Lander: Part of a probe that descend to the surface of an astronomical body
  • Rover: Part of a probe that acts as a vehicle to move on the solid-surface of an astronomical body
  • Penetrator: Part of a probe that impacts an astronomical body
  • Atmospheric probe or balloon: Part of a probe that descend through or floats in the atmosphere of an astronomical body
  • Sample return: Parts of the probe return back to Earth with physical samples
  • Under Status, in the case of flybys (such as gravity assists) that are incidental to the main mission, "success" indicates the successful completion of the flyby, not necessarily that of the main mission.

Solar probes

Main article: Heliophysics

While the Sun is not physically explorable with current technology, the following solar observation probes have been designed and launched to operate in heliocentric orbit or at one of the Earth–Sun Lagrangian points – additional solar observatories were placed in Earth orbit and are not included in this list:

1960–1969

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 5 Template:Flagicon NASA/
24px DOD
March–April 1960 orbiter success measured magnetic field phenomena, solar flare particles, and ionization in the interplanetary region 50px Template:COSPAR
Pioneer 6(A) Template:Flagicon NASA December 1965 – still contactable in 2000 orbiter success network of solar-orbiting "space weather" monitors, observing solar wind, cosmic rays, and magnetic fields 50px Template:COSPAR
Pioneer 7(B) Template:Flagicon NASA August 1966 – still contactable in 1995 orbiter success Template:COSPAR
Pioneer 8(C) Template:Flagicon NASA December 1967 – still contactable in 2001 orbiter success Template:COSPAR
Pioneer 9(D) Template:Flagicon NASA November 1968 – May 1983 orbiter success Template:COSPAR
Pioneer-E Template:Flagicon NASA 27 August 1969 orbiter failure intended as part of the Pioneer 6–9 network; failed to reach orbit 50px Template:COSPAR

1974–1997

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Helios A Template:Flagicon NASA/
Template:Flagicon DFVLR
November 1974 – 1982 orbiter success observations of solar wind, magnetic and electric fields, cosmic rays and cosmic dust between Earth and Sun 50px Template:COSPAR
Helios B Template:Flagicon NASA/
Template:Flagicon DFVLR
January 1976 – 1985? orbiter success Template:COSPAR
ISEE-3 Template:Flagicon NASA 1978–1982 orbiter success observed solar phenomena in conjunction with earth-orbiting ISEE-1 and ISEE-2; later renamed International Cometary Explorer (ICE) and directed to Comet Giacobini-Zinner 50px Template:COSPAR
Ulysses
(first pass)
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon NASA
1994 orbiter success south polar observations 50px Template:COSPAR
1995 north polar observations
WIND Template:Flagicon NASA November 1994 – still active as of December 2017[2] orbiter success solar wind measurements 50px Template:COSPAR
SOHO Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon NASA
May 1996 – extended to December 2018[3] orbiter success investigation of Sun's core, corona, and solar wind; comet discoveries 50px Template:COSPAR
ACE Template:Flagicon NASA August 1997 – projected until 2024[4] orbiter success solar wind observations 50px Template:COSPAR

2000–present

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Ulysses
(second pass)
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon NASA
2000 orbiter success south polar observations 50px Template:COSPAR
2001 north polar observations
Genesis Template:Flagicon NASA 2001–2004 orbiter/
sample return
success solar wind sample return; crash landed on return to Earth, much data salvaged 50px Template:COSPAR
STEREO A Template:Flagicon NASA December 2006 –
still active as of September 2016[5][6]
orbiter success stereoscopic imaging of coronal mass ejections and other solar phenomena 50px Template:COSPAR
STEREO B Template:Flagicon NASA December 2006 – October 2014
August 2016 –
(communication lost between October 1, 2014 and August 21, 2016)[6][7]
orbiter success Template:COSPAR
Ulysses
(third pass)
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon NASA
2007 orbiter success south polar observations 50px Template:COSPAR
2008 partial success north polar observations; some data returned despite failing power and reduced transmission capacity
DSCOVR Template:Flagicon NOAA February 2015 – orbiter success solar wind and coronal mass ejection monitoring, as well as Earth climate monitoring 50px Template:COSPAR [8]

Proposed

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Solar Orbiter Template:Flagicon ESA October 2018[9] orbiter Template:Scheduled solar and heliospheric physics [10]
Parker Solar Probe Template:Flagicon NASA 31 July–19 August 2018[11] orbiter Template:Scheduled close-range solar coronal study [12]
Intergelio-Zond Template:Flagicon RKA 2026 orbiter planned close-range solar observations [13]
Aditya-L1 Template:Flagicon ISRO 2019–2020[14] orbiter planned to study solar corona [15]

Mercury probes

Main article: Exploration of Mercury
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 10 Template:Flagicon NASA 29 March 1974 flyby success minimum distance 704 km 50px Template:COSPAR
21 September 1974 48,069 km
16 March 1975 327 km
MESSENGER Template:Flagicon NASA 14 January 2008 flyby success minimum distance 200 km 50px Template:COSPAR
6 October 2008 minimum distance 200 km
29 September 2009 minimum distance 228 km
18 March 2011 –
30 April 2015
orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit Mercury; unavoidable impact on the surface at end of mission
BepiColombo Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon JAXA
April 2018 (launch) – 1 May 2026 (end of nominal mission) Template:COSPAR
   Mercury
Planetary Orbiter
Template:Flagicon ESA 18 December 2024 (orbital insertion)
27 March 2025 (final MPO orbit)
orbiter integrated and tested
Mercury Magnetospheric
Orbiter
Template:Flagicon JAXA 18 December 2024 (orbital insertion) orbiter integrated and tested

Venus probes

Main article: Exploration of Venus

1961–1969

Venus Probes (List) [1961-1965]
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Tyazhely Sputnik Template:Flagicon (USSR) 4 February 1961 lander failure failed to escape from Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Venera 1 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 19 May 1961 –
20 May 1961
flyby failure contact lost 7 days after launch; first spacecraft to fly by another planet Template:COSPAR
Mariner 1 Template:Flagicon NASA 22 July 1962 flyby failure guidance failure shortly after launch Template:COSPAR
Sputnik 19 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 25 August 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Sputnik 20 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 1 September 1962 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Sputnik 21 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 12 September 1962 flyby failure third stage exploded Template:COSPAR
Mariner 2 Template:Flagicon NASA 14 December 1962 flyby success first successful Venus flyby; minimum distance 34,773 km 50px Template:COSPAR
Cosmos 21 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 11 November 1963 flyby? failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Venera 1964A Template:Flagicon (USSR) 19 February 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Venera 1964B Template:Flagicon (USSR) 1 March 1964 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit [1]
Cosmos 27 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 27 March 1964 flyby failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Zond 1 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 1964 flyby and possible lander failure contact lost en route Template:COSPAR
Cosmos 96 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 23 November 1965 lander failure exploded? Template:COSPAR
Venera 1965A Template:Flagicon (USSR) 26 November 1965 flyby failure launch vehicle failure? [1]
Venera 2 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 27 February 1966 flyby failure ceased to operate en route Template:COSPAR
Venera 3 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 1 March 1966 lander failure contact lost before arrival; first spacecraft to impact on the surface of another planet Template:COSPAR
Kosmos 167 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 17 June 1967 lander failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Venera 4 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 18 October 1967 atmospheric probe success continued to transmit to an altitude of 25 km Template:COSPAR
Mariner 5 Template:Flagicon NASA 19 October 1967 flyby success minimum distance 5,000 km 50px Template:COSPAR
Venera 5 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 16 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 53 minutes, to an altitude of about 26 km Template:COSPAR
Venera 6 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 17 May 1969 atmospheric probe success transmitted atmospheric data for 51 minutes, to an altitude of perhaps 10–12 km Template:COSPAR

1970–1978

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Cosmos 359 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 22 August 1970 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Venera 7 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 15 December 1970 lander success first successful landing on another planet; signals returned from surface for 23 minutes Template:COSPAR
Cosmos 482 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 31 March 1972 lander? failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Venera 8 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 22 July 1972 lander success signals returned from surface for 50 minutes Template:COSPAR
Mariner 10 Template:Flagicon NASA 5 February 1974 flyby success minimum distance 5768 km, en route to Mercury; first use of gravity assist by an interplanetary spacecraft 50px Template:COSPAR
Venera 9 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 1975 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit Venus; communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies 50px Template:COSPAR
22 October 1975 lander success first images from the surface; operated on surface for 53 minutes Template:COSPAR
Venera 10 Template:Flagicon (USSR) 1975 orbiter success communications relay for lander; atmospheric and magnetic studies 50px Template:COSPAR
23 October 1975 lander success transmitted from surface for 65 minutes Template:COSPAR
Pioneer Venus Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA 4 December 1978 –
1992
orbiter success atmospheric and magnetic studies 50px Template:COSPAR
Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Template:Flagicon NASA 9 December 1978 50px
bus probe transporter success deployed four atmospheric probes, then burnt up in Venusian atmosphere, continuing to transmit to 110 km altitude Template:COSPAR
large probe atmospheric probe success Template:COSPAR
north probe atmospheric probe success Template:COSPAR
day probe atmospheric probe success survived impact and continued to transmit from surface for over an hour Template:COSPAR
night probe atmospheric probe success Template:COSPAR
Venera 12 Template:Flagicon SAS
flight platform 21 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay Template:COSPAR
descent craft 21 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 110 minutes; failure of some instruments Template:COSPAR
Venera 11 Template:Flagicon SAS identical to Venera 12
   flight platform 25 December 1978 flyby success minimum distance 34,000 km; deployed lander and then acted as communications relay Template:COSPAR
descent craft 25 December 1978 lander partial success soft landing; transmissions returned for 95 minutes; failure of some instruments Template:COSPAR

1982–1999

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venera 13 Template:Flagicon SAS
   bus 1 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 50px Template:COSPAR
descent craft 1 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 127 minutes Template:COSPAR
Venera 14 Template:Flagicon SAS identical to Venera 13
bus 5 March 1982 flyby success deployed lander and then acted as communications relay 50px Template:COSPAR
descent craft 5 March 1982 lander success survived on surface for 57 minutes Template:COSPAR
Venera 15 Template:Flagicon SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping Template:COSPAR
Venera 16 Template:Flagicon SAS 1983–1984 orbiter success radar mapping; identical to Venera 15 Template:COSPAR
Vega 1 Template:Flagicon SAS 11 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet 50px Template:COSPAR
lander failure instruments deployed prematurely Template:COSPAR
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours 50px Template:COSPAR
Vega 2 Template:Flagicon SAS 15 June 1985 flyby success went on to fly by Halley's comet 50px Template:COSPAR
lander success transmitted from surface for 56 minutes Template:COSPAR
atmospheric balloon success floated at an altitude of about 54 km and transmitted for around 46 hours 50px Template:COSPAR
Galileo Template:Flagicon NASA 10 February 1990 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 16,000 km 50px [16]
Magellan Template:Flagicon NASA 10 August 1990 –
12 October 1994
orbiter success global radar mapping 50px Template:COSPAR [17]
Cassini Template:Flagicon NASA/
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon ASI
26 April 1998 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn 50px Template:COSPAR [18]
24 June 1999

2006–present

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Venus Express Template:Flagicon ESA 11 April 2006 – 18 January 2015 orbiter success atmospheric studies; planetary imaging; magnetic observations 50px Template:COSPAR
MESSENGER Template:Flagicon NASA 24 October 2006 flyby success gravity assist only; minimum distance 2990 km 50px Template:COSPAR
6 June 2007 success minimum distance 300 km; en route to Mercury
Akatsuki
(PLANET-C)
Template:Flagicon JAXA 6 December 2010 (Venus flyby)
7 December 2015 (orbital insertion) –
orbiter success failed orbital insertion in 2010; success in 2015
science mission ongoing since May 2016
50px Template:COSPAR
IKAROS Template:Flagicon JAXA 8 December 2010 flyby[19] success solar sail technology development / interplanetary space exploration 50px Template:COSPAR [20]
Shin'en
(UNITEC-1)
Template:Flagicon UNISEC December 2010? flyby[21] failure contact lost shortly after launch Template:COSPAR [22][23]

Proposed

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
ISRO Venus orbiter mission Template:Flagicon ISRO after 2020 orbiter + balloons proposed [24][25]
Venus In Situ Explorer Template:Flagicon NASA 2024 lander or airplane proposed 50px [26]
Venera-D Template:Flagicon RKA 2025 orbiter proposed [27][28]

Earth flybys

See List of Earth flybys

In addition, several planetary probes have sent back observations of the Earth-Moon system shortly after launch, most notably Mariner 10, Pioneers 10 and 11 and both Voyager probes.

Lunar probes

See List of lunar probes

Mars probes

Main article: Exploration of Mars

1960–1969

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mars 1M No.1 Template:Flagicon USSR 10 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Mars 1M No.2 Template:Flagicon USSR 14 October 1960 flyby failure failed to reach Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Mars 1962A Template:Flagicon USSR 24 October 1962 flyby failure exploded in or en route to Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Mars 1962B Template:Flagicon USSR 11 November 1962 (launch) lander failure broke up during transfer to Mars trajectory Template:COSPAR
Mars 1 Template:Flagicon USSR 19 June 1963 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within approximately 193,000 km of Mars Template:COSPAR
Mariner 3 Template:Flagicon NASA 5 November 1964 flyby failure protective shield failed to eject, preventing craft from attaining correct trajectory 50px Template:COSPAR
Mariner 4 Template:Flagicon NASA 15 July 1965 flyby success first close-up images of Mars 50px Template:COSPAR
Zond 2 Template:Flagicon USSR 6 August 1965 flyby failure contact lost en route; flew within 1,500 km of Mars Template:COSPAR
Mariner 6 Template:Flagicon NASA 31 July 1969 flyby success 50px Template:COSPAR
Mariner 7 Template:Flagicon NASA 5 August 1969 flyby success 50px Template:COSPAR
Mars 1969A Template:Flagicon USSR 27 March 1969 (launch) orbiter failure launch failure Template:COSPAR
Mars 1969B Template:Flagicon USSR 2 April 1969 (launch) orbiter failure launch failure Template:COSPAR

1971–1976

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mariner 8 Template:Flagicon NASA 9 May 1971 (launch) orbiter failure launch vehicle failure 50px Template:COSPAR
Kosmos 419 Template:Flagicon USSR 10 May 1971 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
Mariner 9 Template:Flagicon NASA 14 November 1971 –
27 October 1972
orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit another planet 50px Template:COSPAR
Mars 2 Template:Flagicon USSR 27 November 1971 –
22 August 1972
orbiter success first Russian spacecraft to orbit another planet Template:COSPAR
   Mars 2 Lander Template:Flagicon USSR 27 November 1971 lander and short range rover failure crashed; first manmade object to reach surface of Mars Template:COSPAR
Mars 3 Template:Flagicon USSR 2 December 1971 –
22 August 1972
orbiter partial success attained a different orbit than intended due to insufficient fuel Template:COSPAR
Mars 3 Lander Template:Flagicon USSR 2 December 1971 lander and short range rover partial success first soft landing on Mars; contact lost 110 sec after soft landing, first picture from surface Template:COSPAR
Mars 4 Template:Flagicon USSR 10 February 1974 orbiter failure orbit insertion failed, became flyby Template:COSPAR
Mars 5 Template:Flagicon USSR 12 February 1974 –
28 February 1974
orbiter success Template:COSPAR
Mars 6 Template:Flagicon USSR 12 March 1974 flyby success Template:COSPAR
Mars 6 Lander Template:Flagicon USSR 12 March 1974 lander failure contact lost 148 sec after parachute deployment (returned 224 seconds of atmospheric data)
Mars 7 Template:Flagicon USSR 9 March 1974 flyby success Template:COSPAR
Mars 7 Lander Template:Flagicon USSR 9 March 1974 lander failure missed Mars
Viking 1 Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA 19 June 1976 –
17 August 1980
orbiter success Template:COSPAR
Viking 1 Lander Template:Flagicon NASA 20 July 1976 –
13 November 1982
lander success 50px Template:COSPAR
Viking 2 Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA 7 August 1976 –
25 July 1978
orbiter success Template:COSPAR
Viking 2 Lander Template:Flagicon NASA 3 September 1976 –
11 April 1980
lander success 50px Template:COSPAR

1988–1999

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1 Template:Flagicon USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost en route to Mars 50px Template:COSPAR
Phobos 2 Template:Flagicon USSR 29 January 1989 –
27 March 1989
orbiter partial success Mars orbit acquired, but contact lost shortly before Phobos approach phase and deployment of Phobos landers 50px Template:COSPAR
Mars Observer Template:Flagicon NASA 25 September 1992 (launch) orbiter failure contact lost shortly before Mars orbit insertion Template:COSPAR
Mars 96 Template:Flagicon RKA 16 November 1996 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit Template:COSPAR
lander 50px Template:COSPAR
lander Template:COSPAR
penetrator 50px Template:COSPAR
penetrator Template:COSPAR
Mars Pathfinder Template:Flagicon NASA 4 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
lander success Template:COSPAR
    Sojourner Template:Flagicon NASA 6 July 1997 –
27 September 1997
rover success first Mars rover 50px Template:COSPAR
Mars Global Surveyor Template:Flagicon NASA 12 September 1997 –
2 November 2006
orbiter success 50px Template:COSPAR
Mars Climate Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA 23 September 1999 orbiter failure Mars orbit insertion failed due to navigation error 50px Template:COSPAR
Mars Polar Lander Template:Flagicon NASA 3 December 1999 lander failure contact lost just prior to entering Martian atmosphere 50px Template:COSPAR
Deep Space 2 "Amundsen" Template:Flagicon NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator 50px Template:COSPAR
Deep Space 2 "Scott" Template:Flagicon NASA 3 December 1999 penetrator

2001–2009

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
2001 Mars Odyssey Template:Flagicon NASA 24 October 2001 – orbiter success studying climate and geology; communications relay for Spirit and Opportunity rovers
longest surviving spacecraft in orbit around a planet other than Earth
50px Template:COSPAR
Nozomi Template:Flagicon ISAS 14 December 2003 orbiter failure failed to attain Mars orbit, became flyby Template:COSPAR
Mars Express Template:Flagicon ESA 25 December 2003 – orbiter success surface imaging and mapping; first European probe in Martian orbit 50px Template:COSPAR
   Beagle 2 Template:Flagicon UK 25 December 2003 lander failure Deployed by the Mars Express; lost for 11 years and imaged by NASA's MRO in 2015[29] 50px Template:COSPAR
MER-A "Spirit" Template:Flagicon NASA 4 January 2004 – 22 March 2010 rover success became stuck in May 2009; then operating as a static science station until contact lost in March 2010 50px Template:COSPAR
MER-B "Opportunity" Template:Flagicon NASA 25 January 2004 – rover success 50px Template:COSPAR
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA 10 March 2006 – orbiter success surface imaging and surveying 50px Template:COSPAR
Rosetta Template:Flagicon ESA 25 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters 50px Template:COSPAR
Phoenix Template:Flagicon NASA 25 May 2008 –
10 November 2008
lander success collection of soil samples near the northern pole to search for water and investigate Mars' geological history and biological potential 50px Template:COSPAR [30]
Dawn Template:Flagicon NASA 17 February 2009 flyby success gravity assist en route to Vesta and Ceres Dawn Flight Configuration 2 Template:COSPAR

2011–present

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Yinghuo-1 Template:Flagicon CNSA 8 November 2011 (launch) orbiter failure failed to escape Earth orbit; launched with Fobos-Grunt Phobos lander Template:COSPAR
MSL Curiosity Template:Flagicon NASA 6 August 2012 – rover success investigation of past and present habitability, climate and geology 50px Template:COSPAR [31]
Mangalyaan / Mars Orbiter Mission Template:Flagicon ISRO 24 September 2014 – orbiter success technology development; studying Martian atmosphere; mineralogical mapping. 50px Template:COSPAR [32][33]
MAVEN Template:Flagicon NASA 25 September 2014 – orbiter success studying Martian atmosphere 50px Template:COSPAR [34]
ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (ExoMars 2016) Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon RKA
19 October 2016 – orbiter in orbit atmospheric gas analysis; communication relay for surface probes 50px Template:COSPAR [35]
    Schiaparelli EDM lander Template:Flagicon ESA/
19 October 2016 lander crashed upon landing[36] landing test, meteorological observation 50px

Proposed

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
InSight Template:Flagicon NASA 5 May 2018[37] lander Template:Scheduled Launch delayed from 2016 by instrument leak 50px [38]
ExoMars rover Template:Flagicon ESA /
Template:Flagicon RKA
2020 rover planned 50px [39]
Mars 2020 Template:Flagicon NASA 2020 rover planned [40]
Mars 2022 orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA 2022 orbiter planned Laser communications relay, high-resolution mapping 50px [41]
Mars Sample Return Mission Template:Flagicon NASA /
Template:Flagicon ESA
2024? orbiter, lander, rover, and sample return under study 50px [42][43]

Phobos probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Phobos 1 Template:Flagicon USSR 7 July 1988 (launch) flyby failure contact lost en route to Mars 50px Template:COSPAR
   DAS Template:Flagicon USSR 2 September 1988 fixed lander failure never deployed
Phobos 2 Template:Flagicon USSR 27 March 1989 (contact lost) flyby failure attained Mars orbit; contact lost prior to deployment of lander 50px Template:COSPAR
   DAS Template:Flagicon USSR 27 March 1989 fixed lander failure never deployed
   "Frog" Template:Flagicon USSR 27 March 1989 mobile lander failure never deployed
Fobos-Grunt Template:Flagicon RKA 8 November 2011 (launch) sample return failure failed to escape Earth orbit; launched with Yinghuo-1 Mars orbiter Template:COSPAR
MMX Template:Flagicon JAXA 2024 (launch)
2025 (arrival)
sample return planned orbital insertion in 2025 [44]

Ceres probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Dawn Template:Flagicon NASA March 6, 2015 – extended until the second half of 2018[45] orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies; previously visited Vesta Dawn Flight Configuration 2 Template:COSPAR

Asteroid probes

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
951 Gaspra Galileo Template:Flagicon NASA 29 October 1991 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 1900 km 50px [16]
243 Ida Galileo Template:Flagicon NASA 28 August 1993 flyby success en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 2400 km; discovery of the first asteroid satellite Dactyl 50px [16]
1620 Geographos Clementine Template:Flagicon BMDO/
22px NASA
1994 flyby failure flyby cancelled due to equipment malfunction 50px Template:COSPAR
253 Mathilde NEAR
Shoemaker
Template:Flagicon NASA 27 June 1997 flyby success flew within 1200 km of 253 Mathilde en route to 433 Eros 50px Template:COSPAR
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
Template:Flagicon NASA January 1999 orbiter failure became flyby due to software and communications problems (later attempt at orbit insertion succeeded; see below) 50px Template:COSPAR
9969 Braille Deep Space 1 Template:Flagicon NASA 29 July 1999 flyby partial success no close-up images due to camera pointing error; went on to visit comet 19P/Borrelly 50px Template:COSPAR
2685 Masursky Cassini Template:Flagicon NASA/
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon ASI
23 January 2000 distant flyby success en route to Saturn 50px Template:COSPAR
433 Eros NEAR
Shoemaker
Template:Flagicon NASA February 2000 –
February 2001
orbiter, became lander success improvised landing by orbiter at end of mission 50px Template:COSPAR
5535 Annefrank Stardust Template:Flagicon NASA November 2, 2002 distant flyby success went on to visit comet 81P/Wild 50px Template:COSPAR
25143 Itokawa Hayabusa Template:Flagicon ISAS 2005–07 sample return success landed on Itokawa in 2005, initially failed as device failed to operate, but second landing resulted in a success. It returned to Earth in 2010 50px Template:COSPAR
    MINERVA Template:Flagicon ISAS 12 November 2005 hopper failure missed target
132524 APL New Horizons Template:Flagicon NASA June 2006 distant flyby success flew past Pluto successfully Template:COSPAR
2867 Šteins Rosetta Template:Flagicon ESA 5 September 2008 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 50px Template:COSPAR
21 Lutetia Rosetta Template:Flagicon ESA 11 July 2010 flyby success en route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 50px Template:COSPAR
4 Vesta Dawn Template:Flagicon NASA 16 July 2011 – 5 September 2012 orbiter success first spacecraft to orbit two different celestial bodies; now orbiting Ceres Dawn Flight Configuration 2 Template:COSPAR
4179 Toutatis Chang'e 2 Template:Flagicon CNSA 13 December 2012 flyby success Template:COSPAR
2000 DP107 PROCYON Template:Flagicon University of Tokyo / JAXA 12 May 2016[46] flyby failure launched with Hayabusa 2 in 2014; mission abandoned after ion thruster failure[47] Template:COSPAR
162173 Ryugu Hayabusa 2 Template:Flagicon JAXA July 2018 sample return en route orbital insertion in 2018, sample capture in 2019, return to Earth in 2020 Template:COSPAR
    Minerva II-1A Template:Flagicon JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    Minerva II-1B Template:Flagicon JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    Minerva II-2 Template:Flagicon JAXA 2018 hopper en route
    MASCOT Template:Flagicon DLR/
Template:Flagicon CNES
2018 mobile lander en route
101955 Bennu OSIRIS-REx Template:Flagicon NASA August 2018 sample return en route orbital insertion in 2018, sample capture in 2020, return to Earth in 2023 50px Template:COSPAR
52246 Donaldjohanson Lucy Template:Flagicon NASA 2021 (launch)
April 2025 (flyby)
flyby planned Selected for mission #13 of NASA's Discovery Program, main-belt asteroid flyby en route to Jupiter Trojans [48]
16 Psyche Psyche Template:Flagicon NASA 2022 (launch)
2026 (arrival)
orbiter planned Selected for mission #14 of NASA's Discovery Program [48]
3548 Eurybates Lucy Template:Flagicon NASA August 2027 flyby planned First flyby of a Jupiter trojan [48]
15094 Polymele Lucy Template:Flagicon NASA September 2027 flyby planned [48]
11351 Leucus Lucy Template:Flagicon NASA April 2028 flyby planned [48]
21900 Orus Lucy Template:Flagicon NASA November 2028 flyby planned [48]
Patroclus and Menoetius Lucy Template:Flagicon NASA March 2033 flyby planned First flyby of a Trojan Camp Jupiter Trojan [48]


Jupiter probes

Main article: Exploration of Jupiter
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10 Template:Flagicon NASA 3 December 1973 flyby success first probe to cross the asteroid belt; first Jupiter probe; first man-made object on an interstellar trajectory; now in the outer regions of the Solar System but no longer contactable 50px Template:COSPAR
Pioneer 11 Template:Flagicon NASA 4 December 1974 flyby success went on to visit Saturn 50px Template:COSPAR
Voyager 1 Template:Flagicon NASA 5 March 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn Voyager Template:COSPAR
Voyager 2 Template:Flagicon NASA 9 July 1979 flyby success went on to visit Saturn, Uranus and Neptune Voyager Template:COSPAR
Ulysses
(first pass)
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon NASA
February 1992 flyby success gravity assist en route to inclined heliocentric orbit for solar polar observations 50px Template:COSPAR
Galileo Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA/
Template:Flagicon DLR
7 December 1995 –
21 September 2003
orbiter success also flew by various of Jupiter's moons; intentionally flown into Jupiter at end of mission; first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter; first spacecraft to flyby an asteroid 50px Template:COSPAR
   Galileo Probe Template:Flagicon NASA/
Template:Flagicon DLR
7 December 1995 atmospheric probe success first probe to enter Jupiter's atmosphere 50px Template:COSPAR
Cassini Template:Flagicon NASA/
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon ASI
December 2000 flyby success gravity assist en route to Saturn 50px Template:COSPAR
Ulysses
(second pass)
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon NASA
2003–04 distant flyby success 50px Template:COSPAR
New Horizons Template:Flagicon NASA 28 February 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to Pluto Template:COSPAR
Juno Template:Flagicon NASA 5 July 2016 – July 2018, with spacecraft disposal planned for July 2021[49] orbiter success First solar-powered Jupiter orbiter, first mission to achieve a polar orbit of Jupiter. 50px Template:COSPAR
JUICE Template:Flagicon ESA 2022 (launch) orbiter planned mission to study Jupiter's three icy moons Callisto, Europa and Ganymede, eventually orbiting Ganymede as the first spacecraft to orbit a satellite of another planet 50px [50]
Europa Clipper Template:Flagicon NASA 2020s orbiter under study planned to orbit Jupiter and fly by Europa multiple times 50px [51]

Saturn probes

Main article: Exploration of Saturn
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 11 Template:Flagicon NASA 1 September 1979 flyby success previously visited Jupiter 50px Template:COSPAR
Voyager 1 Template:Flagicon NASA 12 November 1980 flyby success previously visited Jupiter Voyager Template:COSPAR
Voyager 2 Template:Flagicon NASA 5 August 1981 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, went on to visit Uranus and Neptune Voyager Template:COSPAR
Cassini Template:Flagicon NASA/
Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon ASI
1 July 2004 – 15 September 2017 orbiter success also performed flybys of a number of Saturn's moons, and deployed the Huygens Titan lander; first spacecraft to orbit Saturn 50px Template:COSPAR

Titan probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Huygens Template:Flagicon ESA 14 January 2005 atmospheric probe, lander success deployed by Cassini; first probe to land on a satellite of another planet Template:COSPAR
Titan Saturn System Mission Template:Flagicon ESA/
Template:Flagicon NASA
October 2029 orbiter, montgolfière, lander under study

Uranus probes

Main article: Exploration of Uranus
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2 Template:Flagicon NASA 24 January 1986 flyby success previously visited Jupiter and Saturn; went on to visit Neptune Voyager Template:COSPAR

Neptune probes

Main article: Exploration of Neptune
Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Voyager 2 Template:Flagicon NASA 25 August 1989 flyby success previously visited Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus Voyager Template:COSPAR

Pluto probes

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
New Horizons Template:Flagicon NASA 14 July 2015 flyby success will flyby Kuiper belt object Template:Nobr on January 1, 2019 when it is 43.4 AU from the Sun. 50px Template:COSPAR

Comet probes

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
21P/Giacobini-Zinner ICE (formerly ISEE3) Template:Flagicon NASA 11 September 1985 flyby success previously solar monitor ISEE3; went on to observe Halley's Comet 50px Template:COSPAR
1P/Halley Vega 1 Template:Flagicon SAS 6 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus 50px Template:COSPAR
1P/Halley Suisei Template:Flagicon ISAS 8 March 1986 flyby success 151,000 km 50px Template:COSPAR
1P/Halley Vega 2 Template:Flagicon SAS 9 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 8,890 km; previously visited Venus 50px Template:COSPAR
1P/Halley Sakigake Template:Flagicon ISAS March 1986 distant flyby partial success minimum distance 6.99 million km 50px Template:COSPAR
1P/Halley Giotto Template:Flagicon ESA 14 March 1986 flyby success minimum distance 596 km; went on to visit comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup 50px Template:COSPAR
1P/Halley ICE (formerly ISEE3) Template:Flagicon NASA 28 March 1986 distant obser-
vations
success minimum distance 32 million km; previously visited comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner 50px Template:COSPAR
26P/Grigg-Skjellerup Giotto Template:Flagicon ESA 10 July 1992 flyby success previously visited Halley's Comet 50px Template:COSPAR
45P/
Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova
Sakigake Template:Flagicon ISAS 1996 flyby failure contact lost; previously visited Halley's Comet 50px Template:COSPAR
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Sakigake Template:Flagicon ISAS 1998 flyby failure
55P/Tempel-Tuttle Suisei Template:Flagicon ISAS 1998 flyby failure abandoned due to lack of fuel; previously visited Halley's Comet 50px Template:COSPAR
21P/Giacobini-Zinner Suisei Template:Flagicon ISAS 1998 flyby failure
19P/Borrelly Deep Space 1 Template:Flagicon NASA 22 September 2001 flyby success previously visited asteroid 9969 Braille 50px Template:COSPAR
2P/Encke CONTOUR Template:Flagicon NASA 2003 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch 50px Template:COSPAR
81P/Wild Stardust Template:Flagicon NASA 2 January 2004 flyby, sample return success sample returned January 2006; also visited asteroid 5535 Annefrank 50px Template:COSPAR
9P/Tempel Deep Impact Template:Flagicon NASA July 2005 flyby success 50px Template:COSPAR
    Impactor Template:Flagicon NASA 4 July 2005 impactor success
73P/
Schwassmann-Wachmann
CONTOUR Template:Flagicon NASA 2006 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch 50px Template:COSPAR
6P/d'Arrest CONTOUR Template:Flagicon NASA 2008 flyby failure contact lost shortly after launch 50px Template:COSPAR
103P/Hartley Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) Template:Flagicon NASA 4 November 2010 flyby success mission extension (target changed from comet Boethin) 50px Template:COSPAR
9P/Tempel Stardust (redesignated NExT) Template:Flagicon NASA 14 February 2011 flyby success mission extension 50px Template:COSPAR
67P/Churyumov–
Gerasimenko
Rosetta Template:Flagicon ESA 6 August 2014 – 30 September 2016 orbiter success flybys of asteroids 2867 Šteins and 21 Lutetia completed; intentionally impacted at end of mission 50px Template:COSPAR
    Philae Template:Flagicon ESA 12 November 2014 – 9 July 2015 lander success 50px Template:COSPAR

Kuiper Belt probes

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Template:Nobr New Horizons Template:Flagicon NASA 1 January 2019 flyby en route Extended mission to explore Kuiper Belt objects approved in July 2016.[52] 50px Template:COSPAR

Probes leaving the Solar System

Spacecraft Organization Notes Image Ref
Pioneer 10 Template:Flagicon NASA Left Jupiter in December 1973. Mission ended March 1997. Last contact January 23, 2003. Craft now presumed dead; no further contact attempts planned. 50px Template:COSPAR
Pioneer 11 Template:Flagicon NASA Left Saturn in September 1979. Last contact September 1995. The craft's antenna cannot be maneuvered to point to Earth, and it is not known if it is still transmitting. No further contact attempts are planned. 50px Template:COSPAR
Voyager 1 Template:Flagicon NASA Left Saturn in November 1980. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data (as of December 2014). Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020. Voyager Template:COSPAR
Voyager 2 Template:Flagicon NASA Left Neptune in August 1989. Still in regular contact and transmitting scientific data (as of December 2014). Contact hoped to be maintained until at least 2020. Voyager Template:COSPAR
New Horizons Template:Flagicon NASA Left Pluto July 14, 2015; will flyby Kuiper belt object Template:Nobr on January 1, 2019 when it is 43.4 AU from the Sun. New horizons Pluto Template:COSPAR

Other probes to leave Earth orbit

For completeness, this section lists probes that have left (or will leave) Earth orbit, but are not primarily targeted at any of the above bodies.

Spacecraft Organization Date Location Status Notes Image Ref
WMAP Template:Flagicon NASA 30 June 2001 (launch) – to October 2010 (end)[53] Sun-Earth L2 point success cosmic background radiation observations; sent to graveyard orbit after 9 years of use.[53] 50px Template:COSPAR
Spitzer Space Telescope Template:Flagicon NASA 25 August 2003 (launch) – still active (as of September, 2017) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit success infrared astronomy Template:COSPAR
Chang'e 2 Template:Flagicon CNSA 25 August 2011(arrive) to 15 April 2012(end) Sun-Earth L2 point success Left the point on 15 April 2012, then flew by asteroid 4179 Toutatis Template:COSPAR
Kepler Template:Flagicon NASA 6 March 2009 (launch) Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit operational search for extrasolar planets 50px Template:COSPAR [54]
Herschel Space Observatory Template:Flagicon ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point completed study of formation and evolution of galaxies and stars 50px Template:COSPAR
Planck Template:Flagicon ESA 14 May 2009 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point completed (2009-2013) cosmic microwave background observations Template:COSPAR
IKAROS Template:Flagicon JAXA 20 May 2010 (launch) Earth-Venus transfer heliocentric orbit operational solar sail technology development / interplanetary space exploration 50px Template:COSPAR [20]
Shin'en
(UNITEC-1)
Template:Flagicon UNISEC failure technology development; contact lost shortly after launch[23] Template:COSPAR [22]
Gaia Template:Flagicon ESA 19 December 2013 (launch) Lissajous orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point success astrometry mission to measure the position and motion of 1 billion stars Template:COSPAR [55]
Shin'en 2 Template:Flagicon Kyushu Institute of Technology 3 December 2014 (launch) heliocentric orbit success amateur radio satellite / material demonstration Template:COSPAR[56]
ARTSAT2:DESPATCH Template:Flagicon Tama Art University success deep space artwork / amateur radio satellite Template:COSPAR[57]
LISA Pathfinder Template:Flagicon ESA 3 December 2015 (launch)[58] – 30 June 2017 Halo orbit around Sun-Earth L1 point success test mission for proposed LISA gravitational wave observatory 50px Template:COSPAR [59]
James Webb Space Telescope Template:Flagicon NASA
Template:Flagicon ESA
Template:Flagicon CSA
October 2018 (launch) Sun-Earth L2 point planned infrared astronomy 50px [60]
Euclid Template:Flagicon ESA Q4, 2020 (launch)[61] Halo orbit around Sun-Earth L2 point planned measure the rate of expansion of the Universe through time to better understand dark energy and dark matter 50px [62]

Cancelled probes and missions

Target Spacecraft Organization Date Type Status Notes Image Ref
Mercury BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element Template:Flagicon ESA lander cancelled
Moon LUNAR-A Template:Flagicon JAXA orbiter, penetrators cancelled originally scheduled for 1995, cancelled 2007 Template:COSPAR
Mars Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander Template:Flagicon NASA 2001 lander cancelled 50px Template:COSPAR
Mars Beagle 2: Evolution 2004 lander cancelled
Mars NetLander Template:Flagicon CNES/
Template:Flagicon ESA
lander cancelled [63]
Mars Mars Telecommunications Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA 2010 orbiter cancelled Mission could be fulfilled by the proposed Mars 2022 orbiter 50px [64]
Phobos Aladdin Template:Flagicon NASA sample return not selected [65]
Europa Europa Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA orbiter cancelled [66]
Europa, Ganymede, Callisto Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Template:Flagicon NASA 2021 orbiter cancelled 50px [67]
Pluto Pluto Fast Flyby Template:Flagicon NASA 2010 flyby cancelled Re-proposed as Pluto Kuiper Express
Pluto Pluto Kuiper
Express
Template:Flagicon NASA 2012 flyby cancelled Replaced by New Horizons 50px Template:COSPAR
4660 Nereus Hayabusa Template:Flagicon ISAS sample return cancelled rerouted to 25143 Itokawa 50px Template:COSPAR
3840 Mimistrobell Rosetta Template:Flagicon ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted 50px Template:COSPAR
4979 Otawara Rosetta Template:Flagicon ESA 2006 flyby cancelled rerouted 50px Template:COSPAR
4660 Nereus Near Earth Asteroid Prospector SpaceDev sample return cancelled [68]
46P/Wirtanen Rosetta Template:Flagicon ESA 2011 orbiter cancelled rerouted to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko 50px Template:COSPAR

See also

Template:Portal

References

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External links

Template:Planetary exploration


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