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J1407b is an extrasolar planet located about 420 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Centaurus. The planet was discovered in 2012 by the University of Rochester, located in New York.
J1407b is widely known for the massive size of its rings, which are approximately 640 times the extent of the rings found on Saturn. The planet itself is regarded as the first possible exoplanet, or brown dwarf with a ring system. J1407b orbits its parent star, 1SWASP J140747.93−394542.6 (known simply as V1400 Centauri) in an eccentric (oval) orbit, which could disrupt J1407b's own ring system.
Mass, radius and temperature
Size comparison of Kepler-452 b with Earth. Kepler-452b has a probable mass five times that of Earth, and its surface gravity is nearly twice as Earth's, though calculations of mass for exoplanets are only rough estimates. If it is a terrestrial planet, it is most likely a super-Earth with many active volcanoes due to its higher mass and density. The clouds on the planet would be thick and misty, covering much of the surface as viewed from space.
The planet takes 385 Earth days to orbit its star. Its radius is 50% bigger than Earth's, and lies within the conservative habitable zone of its parent star. It has an equilibrium temperature of 265 K (−8 °C; 17 °F), a little warmer than Earth.
The host star, Kepler-452, is a G-type and has about the same mass as the sun, only 3.7% more massive and 11% larger. It has a surface temperature of 5757 K, nearly the same as the Sun, which has a surface temperature of 5778 K. The star's age is estimated to be about 6.5 billion years old, about 1.9 billion years older than the Sun, which is 4.6 billion years old. From the surface of Kepler-452b, its star would look almost identical to the Sun as viewed from the Earth.
The star's apparent magnitude, or how bright it appears from Earth's perspective, is 13.426; therefore, it is too dim to be seen with the naked eye.
Kepler-452b orbits its host star with an orbital period of 385 days and an orbital radius of about 1.04 AU, nearly the same as Earth's (1 AU). Kepler-452b is most likely not tidally locked and has a circular orbit. Its host star, Kepler-452, is about 20% more luminous than the Sun (L = 1.2 L☉).
It is not known if Kepler-452b is a rocky planet but based on its small radius, Kepler-452b is likely to be rocky. It is not clear if Kepler-452b offers habitable environments. It orbits a G2V-type star, like the Sun, which is 20% more luminous, with nearly the same temperature and mass. However, the star is 6.5 billion years old, making it 1.9 billion years older than the Sun. At this point in its star's evolution, Kepler-452b is currently receiving 10% more energy from its parent star than Earth is currently receiving from the Sun. If Kepler-452b is a rocky planet, it may be subject to a runaway greenhouse effect similar to that seen on Venus.
However, due to the planet Kepler 452b being 60 percent bigger in terms of size, it is likely to have an estimated mass of 5 M⊕, which could allow it to hold on to any oceans it may have for a longer period, preventing Kepler-452b from succumbing to runaway greenhouse effect for another 500 million years. This, in turn, would be accompanied with the carbonate–silicate cycle being "buffered" extending its lifetime due to increased volcanic activity on Kepler-452b. This could allow any potential life on the surface to inhabit the planet for another 500–900 million years before the habitable zone is pushed beyond Kepler-452b's orbit.